Jenis-Jenis, Bentuk dan Penggunaan Adverb Bahasa Inggris

Dalam artikel ini kita akan belajar sedikit mengenai adverb, apa saja jenis dan bentuknya dan bagaimana penggunaan adverb dalam bahasa inggris. Silahkan dibaca dan disimak hingga selesai!

1. Manner

Adverb of manner menerangkan kata kerja atau menunjukkan cara.

Contoh:

carefully: dengan hati-hati

happily: dengan gembira

bravely: dengan berani

fluently: dengan fasih

guietly: dengan diam-diam

Catatan

Adjectives dengan akhiran -y → -ily (e.g. angry → angrily)

Adjectives dengan akhiran -le → -Iy (e.g terrible → terribly)

2. Place

Adverb of place menerangkan tempat.

Contoh:

away: menjauh

here: di sini

there: di sana

somewhere: di suatu tempat

anywhere: di suatu tempat

Catatan

Somewhere biasanya digunakan dalam kalimat positif.

Anywhere biasanya digunakan dalam kalimat negatif dan tanya.

Example: I found the book in the room.

Answer: I found the book somewhere in the room.

3. Time

Adverb of time menerangkan tentang waktu

Contoh :

Today : hari ini

Tomorrow : besok

Before : sebelum

Afterwards : setelah itu

Immediately : secepatnya

4. Frequency

Adverb of frequency menerangkan tingkat keseringan.

Contoh:

always: selalu

often: sering

usually: biasanya

sometimes: kadang-kadang

seldom: jarang

rarely: jarang

ever: pernah

never: tidak pernah

Example: She plays tennis on Sundays. (often)

Answer: She often plays tennis on Sundays.

Bentuk dan Penggunaan Adverb

1. Regular adverb

Secara umum, adverb bisa dibentuk dengan menambahkan akhiran -ly pada kata sifat.



Contoh:

bad → badly

slow → slowiy

sweet → sweetly

rapid → rapidly

lazy → lazily

beautiful → beautifully

Adverb biasanya diletakkan di depan kata kerja.

Perhatikan contoh berikut.

He sang badly.

My grandmother walks slowly.

The shop sold the goods cheaply.

2. Irregular adverb

Good → well

Fast → fast

Hard → hard

Long → long

Low → low

Straight → straight

Extra → extra

Doubtless → doubtless

Catatan

Perhatikan kata-kata yang memiliki dua bentuk adverb berikut.

Hard (dengan keras)

Hardly (sulit)

Near (dekat)

Nearly (hampir)

Late (terlambat)

Lately (akhir-akhir ini)

3. Good, Well

Good merupakan sebuah adjective dan berfungsi menerangkan kata benda.

He is a good student.

Well biasanya digunakan sebagai adverb.

They work well.

Well juga bisa digunakan sebagai adjective. Ketika digunakan sebagai adverb, well memiliki makna “dalam keadaan sehat”.

She was sick, but now she is well.

4. Degrees of Comparison

Sama halnya dengan adjective, adverb juga memiliki bentuk comparative dan superlative.

Example: She speaks - rapidly - I

Answer: She speaks more rapidly than I.






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Belajar Bentuk dan Cara Penggunaan Adjective

Pada artikel sebelumnya kita telah membahas jenis-jenis adjective dan beberapa contohnya dalam Bahasa inggris, sekarang kita akan mempelajari tentang Bentuk dan Penggunaan Adjective. Simak dengan baik dan ingat untuk terus berlatih dirumah.

A. Bentuk Adjecfive

1. Verb + ing (present participles)

Amusing: (bersifat) menghibur

Boring: membosankan

Tiring: melelahkan

Horrifying: menakutkan

2. Verb + ed (past participles)

Amused: terhibur

Bored: bosan

Tired: lelah

Horrified: takut

3. Verb + ful

Doubt → Doubtful: meragukan

Use → Useful: berguna

Help → Helpful-berguna

Play → Playful: suka bergurau

4. Noun + ous/ious

Ambition → ambitious: ingin menjadi

Danger → dangerous: berbahaya

Religion → religious: tentang agama

5. Noun + al

Addition → additional: tambahan

Condition → conditional: bergantung pada

Emotion → emotional: mudah emosi

6. Noun + en

Gold → golden (keemasan)

Silk → silken: lembut (seperti sutra)

Wood → wooden: terbuat dari kayu

7. Noun + ish

child → childish: kekanak-kanakan

Red → redish: kemerah-merahan

Old → oldish: sedikit tua

8. Noun + y

Bush → bushy: penuh belukar

length → lengthy: panjang lebar

Swamp → swampy: berawa-rawa

B. Degrees of comparison

1. Positive

as…….as

Contoh:

as good as (...sebaik...)

as brave as (...seberani...)

as bright as (...secerah...)

as clean as (...sebersih...)

as high as (...setinggi...)

- Santi is (tall) Sinta, her twin sister.

Santi is as tall as Sinta, her twin sister.

2. Comparative

.... -er than

more ... than

Contoh:

cleaner than (lebih bersih daripada)

brighter than (lebih cerah daripada)

taller than (lebih tinggi daripada)

more useful than (lebih berguna daripada)

more expensive than (lebih mahal daripada)

catatan:

— Kata sifat yang terdiri dari satu suku kata ditambah akhiran -er.

— Kata sifat yang terdiri dari dua suku kata atau lebih ditambah kata more sebelumnya.

— Kata sifat yang terdiri dari dua suku kata dan berakhiran huruf -y (seperti happy dan easy), -y diganti dengan -i dan ditambah akhiran —er (menjadi happier dan easier).

— Beberapa kata sifat yang tidak beraturan (irregular),

antara lain:

Good → better

Bad → worse

Much/many → more

Little → less

Superlative

the .... -est

the most ....

Contoh:

the prettiest (yang paling manis/cantik)

the richest (yang paling kaya)

the highest (yang paling tinggi)

the most beautiful (yang paling cantik)

the most dangerous (yang paling berbahaya)

Catatan:

- Kata sifat yang terdiri dari satu suku kata ditambah akhiran —est.

- Kata sifat yang terdiri dari dua suku kata atau lebih ditambah kata most sebelumnya.

- Kata sifat yang terdiri dari dua suku kata dan berakhiran huruf -y (seperti happy dan easy), -y diganti dengan -i dan ditambah akhiran —est (menjadi happiest dan easiest).

- Beberapa kata sifat yang tidak beraturan (irregular), antara lain:

Good 5 better D best

Bad → worse → worst

Much/many & more → most

Little → less → least

Practice

Example: He has a fast car, but I have a car.

Answer: He has a fast car, but I have a faster car.

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Jenis-Jenis Adjective & Contohnya dalam Bahasa Inggris

Kata sifat (adjective) adalah kata yang menyifati atau menerangkan kata benda. Berikut adalah beberapa jenis adjective dan contohnya dalam bahasa inggris :

A. Demonsirative (kata sifat penunjuk)

Definite: the, this, that, these, those, such, the same, the other

Contoh:

- You get the book.

- She likes this food.

- These apples are sweet.

- I buy that pen. 


- Those pens are expensive.

- Andri likes collecting stamps. He loves such thing.

- In the library, he met the girl. Then, in the bus station, he met the same girl.

- They found a thief. Then, they looked for the other thieves.

Catatan:

Bentuk plural dari this adalah these.

Bentuk plural dari that adalah those.

Practice

Change the following sentences from singular to plural.

1. This is my book.

Plural = These are my books.

2. That is my sister.

Plural =………………………

3. This message is for you.

Plural =………………………

4. This chair is very comfortable.

Plural =………………………

5. This magazine is out of date.

Plural =………………………

Indefinite: a, an, one, any, a certain, some, another

Contoh:

I borrow a novel.

She bring an umbrella.

My mother give me one pencil.

I didn't meet any people at the school.

Dian likes a certain flower very much, namely orchid.

He bought some oranges.

They tried to find another consumer.

Catatan: a ditempatkan sebelum kata benda yang awalnya berbunyi vokal. Adapun an ditempatkan sebelum kata benda yang awalnya berbunyi konsonan.

Practice

Rewrite the following sentences with a or an.

1. I ate (a/an) apple.

I ate an apple

2. My brother gave me (a/an) book.

……………………………………………………

3. My uncle bought (a/an) old car.

……………………………………………………

4. The house has (a/an) door.

……………………………………………………

5. They are waiting for (a/an) early train.

……………………………………………………

B. Distributive (kata 'sifat distributif)


1. Each (tiap, setiap)

Rizal has two cats. Each cat has three kittens.

2. Each (masing-masing)

The books are ten thousand rupiah each.

Yuli gave the two boys a bar of chocolate each.


3. Every (tiap, setiap, tiap-tiap)

Every student wears uniform to school.

Every employee at the office can operate computers.

4. Each other, one another(saling/satu sama lain)

Each other digunakan untuk menerangkan atau menyifati dua orang. Adapun untuk menerangkan atau menyifati lebih dari dua orang digunakan one another.

Contoh:

Both mother and son love each other.

The people worked in the farm. They helped one another.

5. Every other (setiap dua ... kali)

They play football every other week.

My sister and I go shopping every other week.

Catatan:

Each dan every keduanya bisa bermakna “setiap” atau masing- masing. Akan tetapi, dalam penggunaan every, penekanan pada individu terasa kurang.

C. Quantitative (kata sifat kuantitatif)

1. Much/many: banyak

2. Little/few: sedikit

3. A little/a few: beberapa

4. Some: beberapa

5. Any: beberapa

6. Whole: seluruh, semua

7. A lot of: banyak

8. No: tidak ada
 

Countable noun

Uncountable noun

many books

few books

a few books

some books

a lot of books

much sugar

little sugar

a little sugar

some sugar

a lot of sugar


D. Interrogative (kata sifat tanya)

1. Whose (... punya siapa)

2. What (apa)

3. Which (yang mana)

Contoh:

Whose car broke down?

What bird is it?

Which dress will you wear?

E. Possessive (kata sifat kepemilikan)

Perhatikan contoh berikut.

My house Our house

Your house Your house

Her house

His house Their house

Its house

F. Of Quality

clever : pandai

dry : kering

fat : gemuk

good : baik

heavy : berat

far : jauh

tall : tinggi

high : tinggi

large : luas

dark : gelap

bad : buruk

useful : berguna

dangerous : berbahaya

(dan sebagainya)

Dalam membentuk sebuah kata majemuk yang menggunakan beberapa kata sifat, susunan atau letak kata sifat memiliki aturan tertentu. Salah satunya adalah sebagai berikut.

1. Size

2. General description

3. Age

4. Shape

5. Colour

6. Material

7. Origin

8. Purpose (e.g. walking stick, riding boot)

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Percakapan Meminta, Memberi, dan Menolak Pendapat dalam Bahasa Inggris

Dalam percakapan sehari-hari, seringkali kita harus mengungkapkan pendapat, menolak pendapat, atau meminta pendapat teman kita. Begitupula dalam budaya barat atau dalam Bahasa inggris, bagi mereka adalah penting untuk mengetahui pendapat orang lain karena mereka sangat menghargai demokrasi. Namun, tentunya dalam berpendapat ada yang bisa diterima oleh semua orang, ada yang tidak, yang terpenting adalah bagaimana kita bisa menghargai setiap perbedaan.

Situasi dalam sebuah rapat OSIS.

Aris: So, guys. What is your opinion about the plan of our headmaster concerning the increase of monthly education contribution?

Lia: In my opinion, we can't let this happen. Don't they know that means our parents must spend alot of money? This 20% increase is unbelieveable.

Dana: But, we must remember Lia. This is for our school development. The increase will be allocated for the computer laboratory and maintain of our classroom. If I may tell, the increase makes sense.

Aris: Let's summarize. The increase shall be granted but not more than 10% only, we may also help to supervise its use in one year.

Lia: I am still thinking that the reason of the increase is not very necessary. We can use the development money from the new student every year.

Dana: I think Aris's solution is the best. We can tell the headmaster that the increase should not more than 10% only and we will also control of its using.

Lia: Okay then.

Agar lebih mudah, Berikut beberapa referensi yang bisa kamu gunakan dalam Bahasa inggris saat meminta, memberi, dan menolak pendapat :

Meminta Pendapat :

What is your opinion?

What do you think of....?

What is your point of view?

Memberi Pendapat :

In my opinion...

I think...

I am still thinking that...

In my point of view…..

Menolak Pendapat :

I don't think that way

I think you're wrong

Sekarang praktikkan percakapan Bahasa inggris berikut dengan temanmu atau kamu sendiri bisa di depan cermin dan jangan lupa dengan ekspresi dan intonasi bicara agar percakapan yang kamu praktekkan lebih hidup suasananya.

1. Lana: I think the salary of our president shall increase. The duties are too much and tough.

Lira: I don't think that way. The allowance of the president is more than enough. In addition, the citizens are still in the difficult situation. It's not worth it.

Lana: Well, we have different opinions then. Overall, let's hope a better future for our nation.

Lira: You're right. Our opinions are not the same but our hope is the same. Better future for our nation.

2. Nancy: Every person should have freedom for their rights. What's your point of view about this, Gadis?

Gadis: Yes, I have the same opinion with you, Nancy. Every person has the same right in every aspect of life, law, education, religion, and many more.

Nancy: That's why I just can't stop thinking that some people or organization couldn't help to interfere with other people's right.

Gadis: In my point of view, they just hate differences. They don't like if somebody has different thoughts and vision.

Perbanyaklah berlatih percakapan agar kemampuan Bahasa inggris kamu semakin meningkat, kalaupun kamu tidak punya teman untuk berlatih, berlatihlah di depan cermin sendiri. Lakukan dengan perlahan dan konsisten. Selain itu, perbanyak mendengarkan percakapan Bahasa inggris, baik dari film, atau pun dari mana saja.

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Meminta Pengulangan, Menunjukkan Perhatian, dan Menyatakan Kekaguman dalam Bahasa Inggris

Ketika sedang bercakap-cakap dengan seseorang, terkadang kita tidak bisa mendengar dengan jelas apa yang dikatakannya atau apa yang dia maksudkan. Lalu apa yang harus kita ucapkan? Dan bagaimana pula kita menunjukkan perhatian dan menyatakan kekaguman terhadap orang lain dalam Bahasa inggris? Yuk, simak penjelasan berikut!

Meminta Pengulangan

Maggie: i can't hear any words from Mr. Brown. It's too noisy!

Diane: Why don't you tell Mr. Brown?

Maggie: I will. Emm, excuse me, Mr. Brown. Ya... Mr. Brown?

Mr. Brown: Ah, yes. What's up Maggie?

Maggie: Can you repeat the explanation about verb and noun just now? I can't hear you clearly here.

Mr. Brown: Sure. Don't worry. So the verb is ....

Suasana di pasar.

Mother: Mr, how much for the salmon ?

Fishmonger: I'm sorry, which fish Ma'am?

Mother: Salmon.

Fishmonger: . Oh, salmon? It's Rp75,000.00 per kilogram.

Situasi di dalam stasiun bis.

Stranger: Excuse me, Miss. How much is the bus fare to Surabaya?

Rohana: Excuse me? I'm sorry, I didn't catch what you've just said. Can you speak a little louder?

Stranger: Oh, yes. How much is the bus fare to Surabaya?

Rohana: Oh, to Surabaya? Err... about Rp300,000,00 I think you should better check it at the ticketing.

Stranger: I see, and where's that?

Rohana: Over there, behind the east wall.

Stranger: Oh, okay. Thank you very much, Miss.

Rohana: Sure. No problem.


Menunjukkan Perhatian dan Menyatakan Kekaguman

Mother: Look at you dear... you look so pale and your body temperature is hot.

Intan: Yes, Mom. i feel cold outside too.

Mother: Come on, you should take a rest and drink some medicine.

Intan: Yes, mom.

Situasi di halaman sekolah.

Lala: Ouchh, my skirt uniform looks so dirty and untidy.

Vera: Here. Let me clean it for you because it is on your back side.

Lala: Oh, thank you Vera. Is that okay?

Vera: Yes, that's okay. Don't worry.

Situasi di sebuah prom night (malam perpisahan sekolah).

Rihanna: Friends, how do I look?

Gina: Wow, you look outstanding, Rihanna.

Fanny: Yeah, you look so beautiful. The blue dress is so fascinating.

Rihanna: Yeah, sure. Since I spent 4 hours to prepare and being stuck at the beauty salon.

Gina: Hey, it's worth it. Don't worry.

Fanny: Indeed.

Rihanna: Thank you, girls. You're all the best.

Situasi di sebuah toko kado (giftshop).


Gege : I don't have any idea for giving a gift for Kiko's birthday this evening.

Kristin : Look! This book is awesome. Kiko would surely like it.

Gege : Oh, what kind of book is it?

Kristin : It's about an adventure. Climbing Mt. Everest.

Gege : Let me see. Hmm, yes. I think this is the perfect gift for Kiko.

Kristin : See this? The cover is so lovely. The contrast between the font and the background is amazing.

Gege : Let's go to the cashier, then.

Kristin : Ge, don't forget to buy the gift wrap.

Gege : Ooh, yes. I almost forgot.

Berikut Kalimat referensi dalam Bahasa inggris yang bsia kamu gunakan dalam situasi ini :

Meminta Pengulangan :

Excuse me

Pardon me? (rising intonation)

What did you say (your name was)?

Did you say….?

Can you repeat that?

Could you say that again please?

What was that again?

Sorry, I didn’t catch that

Could you speak a little louder?

Memuji dan menyatakan kekaguman

I really like…..for

I really look up for…..

I like….because….

That’s nice

Look! It is so nice

You look beautiful

You look awesome, great!

Pretty!

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